mongol art gallery berlin germany'ZURAG' film original  in German 2010 Berlin

'ZURAG' film in the Mongolian national television, 2011 Ulan Bator
(Original record from the MNB broadcast)
The Secret History of the Mongols
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Deutsch - Zweites Kapitel: Tschingis Chaans Jugend
English - 
Second Chapter: Genghis Khan's Youth


Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic kaɣan; Mongolian: хаан, хаган; Chinese: 可汗; pinyin: kèhán; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Kağan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khanate, but often referred to as such in western languages). It may also be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings. In modern Mongolian, the title became Khaan with the 'g' sound becoming almost silent or non-existent (i.e., a very light voiceless velar fricative); the ğ in modern Turkish Kağan is also silent. This is probably partly because "khagan" is a political term used to refer to an emperor. After the effective breakup of the Mongol Empire, there was no official khagan and all of the sections were broken up into areas ruled by just a regular ruler or Khan who didn't have to answer to any Khagan therefore making the term obsolete. Kağan is a common Turkish name in Turkey
The common western rendering as Great Khan or Grand Khan, notably in the case of the Mongol Empire, is translation of Yekhe Khagan (Great Emperor or Их Хаан).

The title was first seen in a speech between 283 and 289, when the Xianbei chief Murong Tuyuhun tried to escape from his younger stepbrother Murong Hui, and began his route from Liaodong to the areas of Ordos Desert. In the speech one of the Murong's general named Yinalou addressed him as kehan (可寒, later as 可汗), some sources suggests that Tuyuhun might also have used the title after settling at Koko Nor in the 3rd century.
The first to adopt the title for the state was the nomadic Juan Juan confederacy (4th–6th century AD) or the Xianbei, on China's northern border.
The Avars, who may have included Juan Juan elements after the Göktürks crushed the Juan Juan who ruled Mongolia, also used this title. The Avars invaded Europe, and for over a century ruled the Carpathian region. Westerners Latinized the title "Khagan" into "Gaganus" or Cagan et Iugurro principibus Hunorum.

Mongol Khagans
The Secret History of the Mongols, written for that very dynasty, clearly distinguishes Khagan and Khan: only Genghis and his ruling descendants are called Khagan, while other rulers are referred to as Khan. The g sound in "Khagan" later weakened and disappeared becoming Khaan in modern Mongolian. Khagan or Khaan refers Emperor or King in Mongolian language, however, Yekhe Khagan means Great Khagan or Grand Emperor.
The Mongol Empire began to politically split with the civil war in 1260-1264 and the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, but the term Ikh Khagan (Great Khan, or Emperor) was still used by the Chingisid rulers of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), who assumed the role of Chinese emperors, and after 1368 it continued to be used in Post-imperial Mongolia. Thus, the Yuan is usually referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan, coexisting with the de facto independent Mongol khanates in the west, including the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde. Only the Ilkhanate truly recognized the Yuan's overlordship as allies. Because Kublai founded the Yuan Dynasty, the members of the other branches of the Borjigin could take part in the election of a new Khagan as the supporters of one or other of the contestants, but they could not enter the contest as candidates themselves. In 1304 Temur Khan (r. 1294-1307), the grandson of Kublai, made peace with the three western khanates of the Mongol Empire and was recognized as suzerain of the Empire. The tradition that western khans presented tributes to Khagans lasted until the end of the Yuan's regime in China. Thus, Mongol Emperors of the Yuan held the title of Great Khan of all Mongol Khanates (of the Mongol Empire). Mongolian last Khagan Ligdan of Chahar died in 1634 while fighting the Qing Dynasty founded by the Manchus.
The Khagans of the Mongol Empire were:
  • Genghis Khan (1206-1227)
  • Ögedei Khan (1229-1241)
  • Güyük Khan (1246-1248)
  • Möngke Khan (1251-1259)
Following Khagans had the title of Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty along with their original office of the Great Khan of the Mongols:
  • Kublai Khan (1260-1271)- Late Mongolian title: Setsen (Сэцэн); Chinese title: Shizu- 1271-1294 Zhiyuan 1264-1294
  • Temür Khân - Mongolian title: Oljeitu (Өлзийт); Chinese title Chengzong; 1294-1307; Yuanzhen 1295-1297;Dade 1297-1307
  • Khaiysan- Mongolian title: Khülük (Хүлэг); Chinese title: Wuzong - 1308-1311; Zhida 1308-1311
  • Ayurparibhadra - Chinese title: Renzong (仁宗)-1311-1320; Huangqing 1312-1313;Yanyou 1314-1320
  • Suddhipala - Mongolian title: Gegeen (Гэгээн); Chinese title: Yingzong- 1321-1323; Zhizhi 1321-1323; Jinzong
  • Yesün-Temür-Chinese title:Taiding Di - 1323-1328;Taiding 1321-1328;Zhihe 1328
  • Arigaba - Tianshun Di; Tianshun 1328
  • Toq-Temür - Mongolian title: Zayaghatu (Заяат); Chinese titles: Wenzong; 1328-1329 and 1329-1332; Tianli 1328-1330 Zhìshùn 1330-1332
  • Qutuqtu Mongolian title: Khuslen (Хүслэн); Chinese title: Mingzong - 1329;
  • Irinchibal 1332; Chinese title: Ningzong; Zhishun 1332
  • Toghan-Temür Mongolian title: Ukhaantu (Ухаант хаан); Chinese title: Huizong ; Shundi - 1333-1370; Zhishun 1333;Yuantong 1333-1335; Zhiyuan 1335-1340; Zhizheng 1341-1368; Zhiyuan 1368-1370
Among Turkic peoples
The title became associated with the Ashina rulers of the Göktürks and their dynastic successors among such peoples as the Khazars (cf. the compound military title Khagan Bek). Minor rulers were rather relegated to the lower title of Khan.
Interestingly, both Khakhan as such and the Turkish form Hakan, with the specification in Arabic al-Barrayn wa al-Bahrayn (meaning literally "of both lands and both seas"), or rather fully in Ottoman Turkish Hakan ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn, were among the titles in the official full style of the Great Sultan (and later Caliph) of the Ottoman Empire (Sultan Hân N.N., Padishah, Hünkar, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe; next followed a series of specifical 'regional' titles, starting with Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem), reflecting the historical legitimation of the dynasty's rule as political successor to various conquered (often Islamised) states.

Chinese Khagans
Emperor Taizong of Tang was crowned Tian Kehan, or "heavenly Khagan" after defeating the Tujue (Göktürks). The Tang Dynasty Chinese Emperors were recognized as Khagans of the Turks from 665-705. However, we have two appeal letters from the Turkic hybrid rulers, Ashina Qutluγ Ton Tardu in 727, the Yabgu of Tokharistan, and Yina Tudun Qule in 741, the king of Tashkent, addressing Emperor Xuanzong of Tang as Tian Kehan during the Umayyad expansion.

Among the Norsemen and Slavs
In the early 10th century, the Rus' people employed the title of kagan (or qaghan), reported by the Arab geographer Ibn Rusta writing between 903 and 913. This tradition endured in the eleventh century, as the metropolitan of Ukraine-Rus Hilarion calls both grand prince Vladimir (978–1015) and grand prince Iaroslav (1019–1054) by the title of kagan, while a graffito on the walls of the Cathedral of St. Sophia in Kiev gives the same title to the son of Iaroslav, grand prince Sviatoslav II (1073–1076).

Sources and references
  • Mark Whittow, The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1996.
  • Zhou, Weizhou [1985] (2006). A History of Tuyuhun. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press. ISBN 7-5633-6044-1.
  • Fairbank, John King. The Cambridge History of China . Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Khan (title)
Khan (sometimes spelled Han, Xan, Ke-Han, Turkic: khān, Mongolian: qāān, 
хаан, хан Chinese: 可汗 or 汗, kehan or han) is an originally Central Asian title for a sovereign or military ruler, first used by medieval Altaic-speaking nomadic tribes living to the north of China. 'Khan' is first seen as a title in the Xianbei confederation for their chief between 283 - 289 and was used as a state title by the Rouran confederation. It was subsequently adopted by the Göktürks before Turkic peoples and the Mongols brought it to the rest of Asia. In the middle of the sixth century it was known as "Kagan - King of the Turks" to the Persians.
It now has many equivalent meanings such as commander, leader, or ruler. Presently Khans exist mostly in South Asia, Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Iran. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. Various Mongolic and Turkic peoples from Central Asia had given the title new prominence after the Mongol invasion and later brought the title "Khan" into Afghanistan and Northern India, which later was adopted by locals in the country as a name. Khagan is rendered as Khan of Khans and was the title of Genghis Khan and the persons who are elected to rule the Mongol Empire. For instance Möngke Khan and Ogedei Khan will be "Khagans," but not Chagatai Khan who was not proclaimed rule of the Mongol Empire by kurultai.

Khanate rulers and dynasties
Ruling Khans
A khan controls a khanate (sometimes spelled chanat. Mongolian: хаант, khaant). In the Mongolian language, "khan" is also pronounced with double "a"s like "Khaan". Khaant means "with Khaan," like "Khaant ulus" or "nation with Khan" or khanate. Whenever appropriate as ruler of a monarchy, Khan is also translated, albeit incorrectly, as king or prince.
Originally khans only headed relatively minor tribal entities, generally in or near the vast Eurasian steppe, the scene of an almost endless procession of nomadic people riding out into the history of the neighbouring sedentary regions, mainly Europe and the Far East.
Some managed to establish principalities of some importance for a while, as their military might repeatedly proved a serious threat to such empires as China, Rome and Byzantium.
One of the earliest notable examples of such principalities in Europe was Danube Bulgaria (presumably also Old Great Bulgaria), ruled by a khan or a kan at least from the 7th to the 9th century. It should be noted that the title "khan" is not attested directly in inscriptions and texts referring to Bulgar rulers - the only similar title found so far, Kanasubigi, has been found solely in the inscriptions of three consecutive Bulgarian rulers, namely Krum, Omurtag and Malamir (a grandfather, son and grandson). Starting from the compound, non-ruler titles that were attested among Bulgarian noble class such as kavkhan (vicekhan), tarkhan, and boritarkhan, scholars derive the title khan or kan for the early Bulgarian leader — if there was a vicekhan (kavkhan) there was probably a "full" khan, too. Compare also the rendition of the name of early Bulgarian ruler Pagan as Καμπαγάνος (Kampaganos), likely resulting from a misinterpretation of "Kan Pagan", in Patriarch Nicephorus's so-called Breviarium In general, however, the inscriptions as well as other sources designate the supreme ruler of Danube Bulgaria with titles that exist in the language in which they are written - archontеs, meaning 'commander or magistrate' in Greek, and knyaze, meaning 'duke' or 'prince' in Slavic. Among the best known Bulgar khans were: Khan Kubrat, founder of Great Bulgaria; Khan Asparukh, founder of Danubian Bulgaria (today's Bulgaria); Khan Tervel, sometimes credited for having defeated the Arab invaders, thus "saving Europe"; Khan Krum, "the Terrible". "Khan" was the official title of the ruler until 864 CE, when Kniaz Boris (known also as Tsar Boris I) adopted the Eastern Orthodox faith.
The title Khan became unprecedently prominent when the tribal Mongol Temüjin proved himself a military genius by creating the Mongol empire, the greatest land empire the world ever saw, which he ruled as Genghis Khan. His title was khagan 'Khan of Khans', see below, but is often 'shortened' to Khan (rather like the Persian Shahanshah -also meaning 'King of Kings'- is usually called Shah, equally incorrect, in most Western languages) or described as 'Great Khan' (like the Ottoman Padishah being called 'Great Sultan').
After Genghis' death, the empire would soon start a process of gradual disintegration, with his successors initially preserving the title "khan". Soon the Mongol element waned nearly everywhere, except in desolate regions like its native Outer Mongolia (even in China's 'Inner Mongolia') by sedentary people, and mainly Turkic, nomadic tribes that entered the scene rather like the Mongols had done before, conquering on horseback, to be in turn either sedentarized or overrun. Still, Genghis' prestige was such that a claim to descent from him was as prized as would be descent from Caesar in the West.
Ming Dynasty Chinese Emperors were also known as Khans by Mongols and Jurchens.
The title Khan was also used to designate the rulers of the Jurchens, who, later when known as the Manchus, founded the Qing dynasty of China. The Mongolian title of the Qing emperors, Bogd Khan, would later be used by the eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu after Mongolia's declaration of independence in 1911.
Once more, there would be numerous khanates in the steppe in and around Central Asia, often more of a people than a territorial state, e.g.:
  • of the Kazakhs (founded 1465; since 1601 divided into three geographical Jüz or Hordes, each under a bey; in 1718 split into three different khanates; eliminated by the Russian Empire by 1847)
  • in present Uzbekistan, the main khanate, named after its capital Buchara, was founded in 1500 and restyled emirate in 1753 (after three Persian governors since 1747); the Ferghana (valley's) khanate broke way from it by 1694 and became known as the Khanate of Kokand after its capital Kokand from its establishment in 1732; the khanate of Khwarezm, dating from c.1500, became the Khanate of Khiva in 1804 but fell soon under Russian protectorate; Karakalpakstan had its own rulers (khans?) since c. 1600.
While most Afghan principalities were styled emirate, there was a khanate of ethnic Uzbeks in Badakhshan since 1697.
Khan was the title of the rulers of various break-away states later reintegrated in Iran, e.g. 1747 - 1808 Khanate of Ardabil (in northwestern Iran east of Sarab and west of the southwest corner of the Caspian Sea), 1747 - 1813 Khanate of Khoy (northwestern Iran, north of Lake Urmia, between Tabriz and Lake Van), 1747 - 1829 Khanate of Maku (in extreme northwestern Iran, northwest of Khoy, and 60 miles south of Yerevan, Armenia), 1747 - 1790s Khanate of Sarab (northwestern Iran east of Tabrizlol), 1747 - c.1800 Khanate of Tabriz (capital of Iranian Azerbeidjan).
There were various small khanates in and near Transcaucasia. In present Armenia, there was a khanate of Erivan (sole incumbent 1807 - 1827 Hosein Quli Khan Qajar). Diverse khanates existed in Azerbaijan, including Baku (present capital), Ganja, Jawad, Quba (Kuba), Salyan, Shakki (Sheki, ruler style Bashchi since 1743) and Shirvan=Shamakha (1748 - 1786 temporarily split into Khoja Shamakha and Yeni Shamakha), Talysh (1747-1814); Nakhichevan and (Nagorno) Karabakh.
As hinted above, the title Khan was also common in some of the polities of the various - generally Islamic - peoples in the territories of the Mongol Golden Horde and its successor states, which, like the Mongols in general, were commonly called Ta(r)tars by Europeans and Russians, and were all eventually subdued by Muscovia which became the Russian Empire. The most important of these states were:
  • Khanate of Kazan (the Mongol term khan became active since Genghizide dynasty was settled in Kazan Duchy in 1430s; imperial Russian added to its titles the former Kazan khanate with the royal style tsar.
  • Sibir Khanate (giving its name to Siberia as the first significant conquest during Russia's great eastern expansion across the Ural range) *Sibirean Khanate (giving its name to Siberia as the first significant conquest during Russia's great eastern expansion across the Ural range)
  • Astrakhan Khanate
  • Crimean Khanate.
Examples of other, humbler Tatar khanate dynasties made vassals of Muscovy/ Russia are:
  • the Qasim Khanate (hence modern Kasimov), named after its founder, a vassal of Moscovia/Russia
  • the nomadic state founded in 1801 as the Inner Horde (also called Buqei Horde, under Russian suzerainty) between Volga and Yaik (Ural) rivers by 5,000 families of Kazakhs from Younger Kazakh Zhuz tribe under a Sultan was restyled by the same in 1812 as Khanate of the Inner Horde; in 1845 the post of Khan was abolished);
  • the Kalmyk khanate (established c.1632 by the Torghut branch of the Mongolian Oirats, settled along the lower Volga River (in modern Russia and Kazakhstan)
  • Nogai Khanate
  • the khanate of Tuva near Outer Mongolia.
Further east, in imperial China's western Turkestan flank:
  • Dörben Oyriad ('Four Confederates') or Dzungar (Kalmyk or Kalmuck people branch) Khanate formed in 1626, covering Xinjiang region of China, Kyrgyzstan, eastern Kazakhstan and western Mongolia; 2 Dec 1717 - 1720 also styled Protector of Tibet; 1755 tributary to China, 1756 annexed and dissolved in 1757
  • Khanate of Kashgaria founded in 1514 as part of Djagataide Khanate; 17th century divided into several minor khanates without importance, real power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic islamic religious leaders; title changed to Amir Khan in 1873, annexed by China in 1877.
Compound and derived princely titles
The higher, rather imperial title Khagan ("Khan of Khans") applies to probably the most famous rulers known as Khan: the Mongol imperial dynasty of Genghis Khan (his name was Temüjin, Genghis Khan a never fully understood unique title), and his successors, especially grandson Kublai Khan: the former founded the Mongol Empire and the latter founded the Yuan Dynasty in China. The ruling descendants of the main branch of Genghis Khan's dynasty are referred to as the Great Khans.
The title Khan of Khans was among numerous titles used by the Sultans of the Ottoman empire as well as the rulers of the Golden Horde and its descendant states. The title Khan was also used in the Seljuk Turk dynasties of the near-east to designate a head of multiple tribes, clans or nations, who was below an Atabeg in rank. Jurchen and Manchu rulers also used the title Khan (Han in Manchu); for example, Nurhaci was called Genggiyen Han. Rulers of the Göktürks, Avars and Khazars used the higher title Kaghan, as rulers of distinct nations.
  • Gur Khan, meaning supreme or universal Khan, was the ruler of the Turkic Kara-Kitai, and has occasionally been used by the Mongols as well
  • Ilkhan, both a generic term for a 'provincial Khan' and traditional royal style for one of the four khanates in Genghis's succession, based in Persia. See the main article for more details.
  • Khan-i-Khanan ('Lord of Lords') was a title given to the commander-in-chief of the army of the Mughals, an example being Abdur Rahim, Khan-i-Khanan of the great Mughal emperor Akbar's (and later his son Jahangir's) army.
  • Khan Sahib Shri Babi was the complex title of the ruler of the Indian princely state of Bantva-Manavadar (state founded 1760; September 1947 acceded to Pakistan, but 15 February 1948 rescinded accession to Pakistan, to accede to India).
  • In southern Korean states, the word Han or Gan, meaning "leader", possibly derived from Khan, was used for various ruling princes, until Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, united them under a now hereditary king, titled Maripgan, meaning the 'head of kings' (e.g. King Naemul Maripgan).
  • Khatun, or Khatan (Persian: خاتون) - a title of Indo-European Sogdian origin - is roughly equal to a King's queen in Mongolic and Turkic languages, as by this title a ruling Khan's Queen-consort (wife) is designated with similar respect after their proclamation as Khan and Khatun. Also used in Hazari (instead of Khanum). Famous Khatuns include:
- Töregene Khatun
- Habba Khatun
  • Khanum (Turkish: Hanım) (Azerbaijani: Xanım) (Persian: خانم) is another female derivation of Khan, notably in Turkic languages, for a Khan's Queen-consort, or in some traditions extended as a courtesy title (a bit like Lady for women not married to a Lord, which is the situation modern Turkish) to the wives of holders of various other (lower) titles; in Afghanistan, for example, it ended up as the common term for 'Miss', any unmarried woman. In the modern Kazakh language, Khatun is a derogatory term for women, while Khanum has a respectful meaning.
- The compound Galin Khanum - literally, "lady bride" - was the title accorded to the principal noble wife of a Qajar
  • Khanzada (Persian: خانزادہ)(the Persian suffix -zadeh means son or more generally male descendant; not to be confused with Khannazad: female harem attendant; for analogous titles see Prince of the Blood and links there) is a title conferred to princes of the dynasties of certain princely states, such as
- Jandala (Muslim Jadoon dynasty, Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province), always before the personal name, but itself preceded by Mir, both being maintained by the ruling Khan (who uses that title after his name)
- Sardargarh-Bantva (Muslim Babi dynasty, fifth class state in Kathiawar, Gujarat) in front of the personal name, Shri in between; the ruler replaces Khanzada by khan.

Other khans
Military ranks
The title "khan" was also used as a military officer rank in certain armies, especially following the decimal organisation (already known from Achaemenid Persia) of Genghis Khan's armies.

Nobiliar and honorary titles
In imperial Persia, Khan (female form Khanum) was the title of a nobleman, higher than Beg (or bey) and usually used after the given name. At the Qajar court, precedence for those not belonging to the dynasty was mainly structured in eight classes, each being granted an honorary rank title, the fourth of which was Khan, or in this context synonymously Amir, granted to commanders of armed forces, provincial tribal leaders; in descending order, they thus ranked below Nawab (for princes), Shakhs-i-Awwal and Janab (both for high officials), but above 'Ali Jah Muqarrab, 'Ali Jah, 'Ali Sha'an (these three for lower military ranks and civil servants) and finally 'Ali Qadir (masters of guilds, etc.)
The titles Khan (the lowest commonly awarded) and Khan Bahadur (Altaic root baghatur, related to the Mongolic baatar 'brave, hero'; but in India meaning simply 'one class higher') were also bestowed in feudal India by the Great mughal (whose protocol was largely Persian-inspired) upon Muslims and Parsis, and later by the British Raj, as an honor akin to the ranks of nobility, often for loyalty to the crown. Khan Sahib was another title of honour, one degree higher than Khan, conferred on Muslims and Parsis; again like Khan Bahadur, it was also awarded with a decoration during British rule.
In the major Indian Muslim state of Hyderabad, Khan was the lowest of the aristocratic titles bestowed by the ruling Nizam upon Muslim retainers, ranking under Khan Bahadur, Nawab (homonymous with a high Muslim ruler's title), Jang, Daula, Mulk, Umara, Jah. The equivalent for the courts Hindu retainers was Rai.
In Swat, a presently Pakistani Frontier State, it was the title of the secular elite, who, together with the Mullahs (Muslim clerics), proceeded to elect a new Amir-i-Shariyat in 1914.
It seems unclear whether the series of titles known from the Bengal sultanate, including Khan, Khan ul Muazzam, Khan-ul-Azam, Khan-ul-Azam-ul-Muazzam etc. and Khaqan, Khaqan-ul-Muazzam, Khaqan-ul-Azam, Khaqan-ul-Azam-ul-Muazzam etc., are merely honorific or perhaps relate to a military hierarchy.

Other uses (surname)
Like many titles, the meaning of the term has also extended downwards, until in Persia and Afghanistan it has become an affix to the name of any Muslim gentleman, like Effendi in Osmanli, Esquire in English.
See jirga for local mediators called Khan.
Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names, generally without any nobiliary of political relevance (although it remains a common part of noble names as well). Notably on the Indian subcontinent it has become a part of many South Asian Muslim names, especially when Pashtun descent is claimed.
During the Russian Civil War following the Bolshevik takeover of 1917, White general Roman Ungern von Sternberg, who, admittedly was trying to reconstitute the empire of Genghis Khan, was often styled as "Ungern Khan" between 1919 and his death in 1921.

Khan-related terms
  • Khanzadeh (Tatar: Xanzadä) - a prince, khan's son
  • Khanbikeh (Tatar: Xanbikä) - a queen, khan's wife
  • Yuruk Khans in Ardemush or Erdemuş Village in Kailar. (see : Ottoman Tapu Archivies)
Other Meaning
The title khan influenced Iran and the Muslim countries in Central Asia, but in Arab World (the origin of Islam), khan is the word for “inn” (its first use was applied to “inn for the caravans”).

  1. ^ ""khan."". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  2. ^ a b ""khan."". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  3. ^ Henning, W. B., 'A Farewell to the Khagan of the Aq-Aqataran',"Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African studies - University of London", Vol 14, No 3, p501-522. ,
  4. ^ Zhou 1985, p. 3-6
  5. ^ René Grousset (1988). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. p. 585. ISBN 0813513049.
  6. ^ Henning, W. B., 'A Farewell to the Khagan of the Aq-Aqataran',"Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African studies - University of London", Vol 14, No 3, p501-522. ,
  7. ^ Fairbank, John King. The Cambridge History of China . Cambridge University Press, 1978. p. 367
  8. ^ Източници за българската история - Fontes historiae bulgaricae. VI. Fontes graeci historiae Bulgaricae. БАН, София. p.305 (in Byzantine Greek and Bulgarian). Also available online
  9. ^ The spelling with 'r' is due to a confusion with tartaros, the classical Greek hell. Genghis Khan's conquering, ransacking Mongol hordes terrorized Islam and Christianity without precedent, as if the apocalypse had started.
  10. ^ Carter Vaughn Findley, "Turks in World History", Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 45: "... Many elements of Non-Turkic origin also became part of Türk statecraft [...] for example, as in the case of khatun [...] and beg [...] both terms being of Sogdian origin and ever since in common use in Turkish. ..."
  11. ^ Fatima Mernissi, "The Forgotten Queens of Islam", University of Minnesota Press, 1993. pg 21: "... Khatun 'is a title of Sogdian origin borne by the wives and female relatives of the Tu-chueh and subsequent Turkish Rulers ..."
  12. ^ Leslie P. Peirce, "The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire", Oxford University Press, 1993. pg 312: "... On the title Khatun, see Boyle, 'Khatun', 1933, according to whom it was of Soghdian origin and was borne by wives and female relations of various Turkish Rulers. ..."

Text from Wikipedia